Mark Twain

Appendix. A. Brief Sketch of Mormon History.

Mormonism is only about forty years old, but its career has been full of stir and adventure from the beginning, and is likely to remain so to the end. Its adherents have been hunted and hounded from one end of the country to the other, and the result is that for years they have hated all “Gentiles” indiscriminately and with all their might. Joseph Smith, the finder of the Book of Mormon and founder of the religion, was driven from State to State with his mysterious copperplates and the miraculous stones he read their inscriptions with. Finally he instituted his “church” in Ohio and Brigham Young joined it. The neighbors began to persecute, and apostasy commenced. Brigham held to the faith and worked hard. He arrested desertion. He did more–he added converts in the midst of the trouble. He rose in favor and importance with the brethren. He was made one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church. He shortly fought his way to a higher post and a more powerful–President of the Twelve. The neighbors rose up and drove the Mormons out of Ohio, and they settled in Missouri. Brigham went with them. The Missourians drove them out and they retreated to Nauvoo, Illinois. They prospered there, and built a temple which made some pretensions to architectural grace and achieved some celebrity in a section of country where a brick court-house with a tin dome and a cupola on it was contemplated with reverential awe. But the Mormons were badgered and harried again by their neighbors. All the proclamations Joseph Smith could issue denouncing polygamy and repudiating it as utterly anti-Mormon were of no avail; the people of the neighborhood, on both sides of the Mississippi, claimed that polygamy was practised by the Mormons, and not only polygamy but a little of everything that was bad. Brigham returned from a mission to England, where he had established a Mormon newspaper, and he brought back with him several hundred converts to his preaching. His influence among the brethren augmented with every move he made. Finally Nauvoo was invaded by the Missouri and Illinois Gentiles, and Joseph Smith killed. A Mormon named Rigdon assumed the Presidency of the Mormon church and government, in Smith’s place, and even tried his hand at a prophecy or two. But a greater than he was at hand. Brigham seized the advantage of the hour and without other authority than superior brain and nerve and will, hurled Rigdon from his high place and occupied it himself. He did more. He launched an elaborate curse at Rigdon and his disciples; and he pronounced Rigdon’s “prophecies” emanations from the devil, and ended by “handing the false prophet over to the buffetings of Satan for a thousand years”–probably the longest term ever inflicted in Illinois. The people recognized their master. They straightway elected Brigham Young President, by a prodigious majority, and have never faltered in their devotion to him from that day to this. Brigham had forecast–a quality which no other prominent Mormon has probably ever possessed. He recognized that it was better to move to the wilderness than be moved. By his command the people gathered together their meagre effects, turned their backs upon their homes, and their faces toward the wilderness, and on a bitter night in February filed in sorrowful procession across the frozen Mississippi, lighted on their way by the glare from their burning temple, whose sacred furniture their own hands had fired! They camped, several days afterward, on the western verge of Iowa, and poverty, want, hunger, cold, sickness, grief and persecution did their work, and many succumbed and died–martyrs, fair and true, whatever else they might have been. Two years the remnant remained there, while Brigham and a small party crossed the country and founded Great Salt Lake City, purposely choosing a land which was outside the ownership and jurisdiction of the hated American nation. Note that. This was in 1847. Brigham moved his people there and got them settled just in time to see disaster fall again. For the war closed and Mexico ceded Brigham’s refuge to the enemy–the United States! In 1849 the Mormons organized a “free and independent” government and erected the “State of Deseret,” with Brigham Young as its head. But the very next year Congress deliberately snubbed it and created the “Territory of Utah” out of the same accumulation of mountains, sage-brush, alkali and general desolation,–but made Brigham Governor of it. Then for years the enormous migration across the plains to California poured through the land of the Mormons and yet the church remained staunch and true to its lord and master. Neither hunger, thirst, poverty, grief, hatred, contempt, nor persecution could drive the Mormons from their faith or their allegiance; and even the thirst for gold, which gleaned the flower of the youth and strength of many nations was not able to entice them! That was the final test. An experiment that could survive that was an experiment with some substance to it somewhere.

Great Salt Lake City throve finely, and so did Utah. One of the last things which Brigham Young had done before leaving Iowa, was to appear in the pulpit dressed to personate the worshipped and lamented prophet Smith, and confer the prophetic succession, with all its dignities, emoluments and authorities, upon “President Brigham Young!” The people accepted the pious fraud with the maddest enthusiasm, and Brigham’s power was sealed and secured for all time. Within five years afterward he openly added polygamy to the tenets of the church by authority of a “revelation” which he pretended had been received nine years before by Joseph Smith, albeit Joseph is amply on record as denouncing polygamy to the day of his death.

Now was Brigham become a second Andrew Johnson in the small beginning and steady progress of his official grandeur. He had served successively as a disciple in the ranks; home missionary; foreign missionary; editor and publisher; Apostle; President of the Board of Apostles; President of all Mormondom, civil and ecclesiastical; successor to the great Joseph by the will of heaven; “prophet,” “seer,” “revelator.” There was but one dignity higher which he could aspire to, and he reached out modestly and took that–he proclaimed himself a God!

He claims that he is to have a heaven of his own hereafter, and that he will be its God, and his wives and children its goddesses, princes and princesses. Into it all faithful Mormons will be admitted, with their families, and will take rank and consequence according to the number of their wives and children. If a disciple dies before he has had time to accumulate enough wives and children to enable him to be respectable in the next world any friend can marry a few wives and raise a few children for him after he is dead, and they are duly credited to his account and his heavenly status advanced accordingly.

Let it be borne in mind that the majority of the Mormons have always been ignorant, simple, of an inferior order of intellect, unacquainted with the world and its ways; and let it be borne in mind that the wives of these Mormons are necessarily after the same pattern and their children likely to be fit representatives of such a conjunction; and then let it be remembered that for forty years these creatures have been driven, driven, driven, relentlessly! and mobbed, beaten, and shot down; cursed, despised, expatriated; banished to a remote desert, whither they journeyed gaunt with famine and disease, disturbing the ancient solitudes with their lamentations and marking the long way with graves of their dead–and all because they were simply trying to live and worship God in the way which they believed with all their hearts and souls to be the true one. Let all these things be borne in mind, and then it will not be hard to account for the deathless hatred which the Mormons bear our people and our government.

That hatred has “fed fat its ancient grudge” ever since Mormon Utah developed into a self-supporting realm and the church waxed rich and strong. Brigham as Territorial Governor made it plain that Mormondom was for the Mormons. The United States tried to rectify all that by appointing territorial officers from New England and other anti-Mormon localities, but Brigham prepared to make their entrance into his dominions difficult. Three thousand United States troops had to go across the plains and put these gentlemen in office. And after they were in office they were as helpless as so many stone images. They made laws which nobody minded and which could not be executed. The federal judges opened court in a land filled with crime and violence and sat as holiday spectacles for insolent crowds to gape at–for there was nothing to try, nothing to do nothing on the dockets! And if a Gentile brought a suit, the Mormon jury would do just as it pleased about bringing in a verdict, and when the judgment of the court was rendered no Mormon cared for it and no officer could execute it. Our Presidents shipped one cargo of officials after another to Utah, but the result was always the same–they sat in a blight for awhile they fairly feasted on scowls and insults day by day, they saw every attempt to do their official duties find its reward in darker and darker looks, and in secret threats and warnings of a more and more dismal nature–and at last they either succumbed and became despised tools and toys of the Mormons, or got scared and discomforted beyond all endurance and left the Territory. If a brave officer kept on courageously till his pluck was proven, some pliant Buchanan or Pierce would remove him and appoint a stick in his place. In 1857 General Harney came very near being appointed Governor of Utah. And so it came very near being Harney governor and Cradlebaugh judge!– two men who never had any idea of fear further than the sort of murky comprehension of it which they were enabled to gather from the dictionary. Simply (if for nothing else) for the variety they would have made in a rather monotonous history of Federal servility and helplessness, it is a pity they were not fated to hold office together in Utah.

Up to the date of our visit to Utah, such had been the Territorial record. The Territorial government established there had been a hopeless failure, and Brigham Young was the only real power in the land. He was an absolute monarch–a monarch who defied our President–a monarch who laughed at our armies when they camped about his capital–a monarch who received without emotion the news that the august Congress of the United States had enacted a solemn law against polygamy, and then went forth calmly and married twenty-five or thirty more wives.




9 Responses to Mark Twain

  1. Rajaat99 says:

    Wow. This started out okay, but quickly went south. This is filled with so many inaccuracies, I don’t know where to begin. I’m surprised Samuel Clemens hated the Mormon church so much. Of course, he was critical of all religion and of the Bible.

    • Paleotool says:

      Clemens was in Salt Lake in the early years and allegedly spent time in the Young house. I believe his brother was an emissary from the US when Young briefly declared war on the US. Also, it was the ugly period when the Mormons attacked Jim Bridger’s trading post in an attempt to run him out and subsequently “captured” his wife. Clemens made no bones about his resentment of the Mormons after his sojourn there.

  2. Tesaje says:

    While Twain said (I think in Roughing It) that he never let the truth get in the way of a good story, he often presented a deeper analysis than many. The history compared to other more modern sex/religious cults such as the Jim Jones and David Karesh are remarkably similar except they escaped to the wild west – not an option for modern cults. The modern apologists for Mormonism are so filled with their own slanted and cleansed mythology, their claims cannot be trusted. If one can step outside the brain-washing of our dominant religion and look at history dispassionately and without apology, the Mormon cult origins and subsequent success is instructive at how religions are born and sustained. The domineering personality, the abuse of women, the isolation of the group, the strong efforts at keeping them confined, the claim that god will punish if you don’t cow-tow to the leader, and instituting false histories – all are narcissistic personalities seeking to control and all the hallmarks of abusive control of people. The story is one of a consummate con artist. One has only to look at the Fundamentalist Mormons to see what the original Mormons were like in reality and why the general populace was so against them. They had to throw off the worst of the abuse to join the nation after their isolation was no longer working for them, but hidden in the Mormon theology is that the “spirit” still gets all the abusive perks of the male leaders including the obeisance of women and they do get to become “gods” on their own planet.

    In the Victorian age, women were little more than chattel and usually had little choice once they had married but in this day and age, it really says something about humans that women agree to the dominance practiced by sects like the Mormons. There are plenty of born and raised Mormon women who have a lot of trouble with that (my sister-in-law and a niece for 2) clearly have issues.

    Interesting that Twain was apparently unaware that Joseph Smith also practiced polygamy so he must have just been lying if he publicly proclaimed being against polygamy. He also grabbed at least one very young girl and co-opted other men’s wives. Sound familiar? Twain also seems to be unaware that Smith didn’t actually have the so-called tablets from which the Book Of Mormon was supposedly from – they conveniently were “taken up by God” so you just had to believe his word. Sleight of hand and brazen lies to my ears – what every con artist uses to fool people.

    Thanks for the reminder of this. Roughing It is one of my favorite Twain works but it has been years since I read it.

    • Paleotool says:

      Thanks! Too many revisionists.

    • Brent says:

      Please stop, you don’t know what you’re talking about. It’s people with this attitude that persecuted, and murdered, Mormons and drove them out west.

      • Paleotool says:

        No offense, it’s just his observations. What specific part is untrue? Send us to a source.

      • Brent says:

        Obviously, Tesaje doesn’t like Mormons. He condescending in his remarks and outright insulting. Also, he doesn’t know the definition of a cult, which is defined as any system of religion. Anti-Mormon people are so filled with hate, hate that cannot even be explained, that they spew unfounded accusations. Where’s the abused women, the domineering personalities, the “false” history? Also, how do Mormons disrespect women? Answer me that at least, I would like to know, so I can tell my wife.
        Lets remember that Joseph Smith died for his beliefs. Mormons escaped to the “Wild West” because they were being killed. Look up Missouri Executive Order 44, which made it legal to kill Mormons in the state of Missouri as an example.
        Prejudice never shows much reason.

  3. I always ask the young Mormon missionaries to come back after they have read “Under the Banner of Heaven” by Jon Krakauer. Pretty good history of Mormonism, objective but certainly not kind. Those who would disagree with Twain, should take up their argument with Krakauer (he has footnotes and a bibliography).

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